INCINERATED INDUSTRIAL WASTE UTILIZATION TECHNOLOGY
KALMATRON® KF-ASH is an additive to concrete mix containing over 50% of fly ash, slag ash or crumbled slag from the weight of cement. In order to utilize incinerated industrial waste (IIW) with maximum benefits, that concrete can be successfully used for conventional structures and is widely recommended for urban infrastructure.
KALMATRON® KF-ASH provides maximum of cementitious value to concrete mix and prevents leaching of unstable phases from IIW encapsulated or dissolved in concrete matrix to environment. It increases the field of IIW utilization for chemically, biologically or radioactively contaminated products.
Below is an example of concrete mix design and recommendations for batch preparation.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BATCH PREPARATION
- Dry ingredients of the Cementitious Batch should be loaded into the mixer and mixed for 10 minutes.
- Pour shown amount of water and mix for 5 minutes to get homogenous slur.
- Load dry ingredients of the Aggregate Batch into the mixer and mix for 10 minutes.
- Stiffness of mix may occur since the natural moistness of ash and aggregates is unknown. In this case, the amount of water should be increased by 10 to 18 Liters per cubic meter of concrete mix. Pour water gradually, 2 Liters every 1 minute, while the mixer is rotating, until the mix turns into a heavy slurry, but not of a watery-looking consistency.
- The lower and upper limits of the water to cement ratio are shown in Table 1.
- Do not apply any other additives, chemicals or supplementary materials.
- Minimal trial or production volume is 0.1 m3, wherein all ingredients from table 1 must be divided by "10". The time of technological cycles must be the same as for a concrete mix of 1 m3.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APPLICATION
- The mineralogical content of any inorganic incinerated product is locally recognizable data. It makes it necessary to find the best "water-to-cement" ratio for every kilning or incinerating facility, which supplies your concrete plant, for instance, with fly ash. Evaluation of compressive strength on the 14th day gives reliable data for comparative test results.
- Batch #1 is designed for up to 40 MPa centrally loaded structural elements with approved resistance to compressive strength. For concrete structures exposed to high humidity, soil, liquids and any cycling conditions the isolation/insulation should be applied in accordance with standard technologies.
- Batch #2 is designed for up to 25 MPa centrally loaded structural elements, or not permanently loaded structural or unified elements such as the wall's and separator's panels, pavement slabs, wall blocks, decorations, etc. For concrete structures exposed to high humidity, soil, liquids and/or any cycling conditions the isolation/insulation should be applied in accordance with standard technologies.
If the product of incineration contains micro metal elements, heavy metal particles, metal oxides in any phase at 5% or more, then performance of KALMATRON® KF-ASH might be considered as providing the features of High Performance Concrete (HPC) to the Batch #1 and Batch #2.
Encapsulation of micro metal elements and particles is provided by their partial or complete oxidation into solutions of KALMATRON® KF-ASH with given high chemical potential under the water to cement ratio of 0.42.The petrography of that concrete may even exceed the modern standards of structural concrete or HPC.
In this case the testimonial procedure should be referred to the special concretes dedicated to particularly heavy-duty applications.